There could be as many as 190 Chinese front groups in Germany with direct ties to the United Front bureaucracy in Beijing, according to a research paper published in early October by journalist-researcher Didi Kirsten Tatlow. In addition, Tatlow estimated, there are dozens of German groups that indirectly partner with the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CPAFFC), a key Chinese Communist Party organization dedicated to influencing foreign opinion of the Chinese state.

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