Japan’s aging, shrinking population will cause serious problems for the country throughout the 21st century. Although the fertility rate has recovered to 1.39, this is still very low by international standards. Current official projections estimate that Japan’s present population of 120 million will decline to 40 million by 2110. And the proportion of elderly, 65 years and older — now 25 per cent of the population — is expected to rise to 40 per cent by 2060.
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