“Womenomics” is a key pillar of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s economic growth strategy. In 2013, just 64 percent of Japanese women aged 15–64 were participating in the labor force — a low rate by OECD standards. As Japan’s labor force is already in decline, it is wasteful that women, and particularly those with higher educations, have been underutilized. To address this, Abe has set a target to increase the ratio of female managers to over 30 percent by 2020. In response, several large firms have set similar numerical targets.