On September 2, 1945, Vietnam declared itself independent from France. History, of course, shows that France did not formally leave Vietnam until cessation of hostilities in 1954 upon the conclusion of the First Indochina War. It has long been the narrative from the Communist Party of Vietnam that they and only they fought for their nation's independence. Such a view, however, ignores other nationalist elements that, while united in cause with the communists, differed in ideology; and it was this ideological divide that would lead to the Second Indochina War involving the United States.
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