Religious Tolerance Makes a Comeback in Indonesia
Jokowi says lighten up
Jokowi and mainstream Muslim leaders endorse moves to put Islamic radicals in their place. Will it work?
Indonesia seems to be making welcome moves to rein in Islamic radicals, with President Joko Widodo calling on the country’s largest Muslim organization, Nahdlatul Ulama, to promote “moderate Islamic values” to counter violent militants.
A few days later, on August 7 and possibly at the president’s urging, Haedir Nashir, the newly elected chairman of Muhammadiyah, Indonesia’s second-biggest Islamic body, urged the group’s 30 million followers to work toward better protection for religious minorities, who have suffered rising attacks from Islamists in recent years.
Indonesia is a secular republic guided by an odd philosophical construct, Pancasila, put in place by the country’s founder, Sukarno. The five-sided creed features belief in one god, a just and civilized humanity, national unity, democracy and social justice. It was created to unite a diverse nation and to forestall efforts at the time of independence to make Indonesian an Islamic state.
The large majority of Indonesia’s 206 million Muslims, who make up about 87 percent of the population, have a reputation for being moderate and laid back. There are an estimated 23 million Christians in the country and a variety of Muslim sects. The worst attacks have hit out at Christians, Sufi Muslims and Ahmadiyah, a Muslim offshoot that the Indonesia Council of Ulema, which purports to oversee Islam in the country, has branded as apostate. Followers of Shia Islam have also been attacked and at times forced from their villages.
After the strongman Suharto was forced from office in 1998 after 32 years in power, restrictions on freedom of the press and religion were lifted and a strong current of religious militancy began to fester. Where Suharto had ruthlessly suppressed radical Islam as a destabilizing influence on the state, later governments declined to respond decisively for fear of alienating Muslim voters, something Suharto did not have to worry about. As a result, while the nation remains overwhelmingly moderate, intolerance has grown, expressed by harassment and violence, some of it tacitly condoned by the state and the National Police.
The Islamic Defenders Front [FPI], called by the International Crisis Group an “an urban thug organization,” was founded in 1999 with the open support of top police commanders and is said to receive direct funding from the force. The FPI specializes in harassing women on the street for not being modestly dressed and busting up nightclubs. They have raided prayer sessions for Christians, Shia and Ahmadiyah worshipers across Java, calling for them to be closed. They also extort protection money from businesses and are used as enforcers-for-hire for non-pious reasons.
Radical Islamist terrorist networks such as those that carried out the 2002 Bali bombings and attacks on Western targets in Jakarta have largely been eliminated in recent years by thorough and ruthless police work. More “useful” groups like the FPI have not been targeted by the police and have only faced arrest when a public outcry ensues.
SBY Ignored the problem
Former President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is among those accused of turning away from the problem. Other than a few public pronouncements of alarm, the former president did little to stop harassment and violence – some of it deadly – directed against several Christian groups, Shia Muslims, and the Ahmadiyah. There have been least five major attacks on Christians in which worshipers have died since 2011.
Perhaps the most horrific incident occurred in 2010 when a howling mob of about 1,000 was caught on video as they descended on an Ahmadiyah compound in the western Java town of Cikeusik in Banten province. Three men were run down and beaten to death as they fled for their lives. In a distressing miscarriage of justice, the leader of the mob, Idris bin Mahdani, was convicted of nothing more than illegal possession of a machete.
Mahdani was jailed for five months and 15 days. Dani bin Misra, a 17-year-old who was shown in in the video smashing a victim’s skull with a stone, received three months for manslaughter. None of the 12 who stood trial faced murder charges. Some of the Ahmadi residents were even threatened with prosecution for resisting the mob by refusing to flee from the town.