The small Al Khasanah Mosque in East Jakarta was half-full when Farid
Okbah took to the podium to deliver his sermon. Fifteen minutes into his
fiery speech, the place of worship was packed with around 150 people
eager to hear the firebrand cleric lash out against what he called
Minority sects "are thorns in our flesh," he
told his followers. "They are far more dangerous than the infidels. They
weaken Islam from within, spinning Islamic verses to suit their own
He cited the Ahmadis, the Sufis and moderate
Sunni Muslims. But whatever criticism he had for these groups was
eclipsed by the sheer vitriol targeted toward the Shiites.
One Shiite in Indonesia is one Shiite too many, the cleric said.
'Need to Be Exterminated'
Farid preaches in a small mosque, his sermons are picked up by groups
like the Ikhwanul Jannah Foundation and the As Salafi Foundation and
circulated on the Internet. Audio clips of his teachings and those of
other anti-Shia clerics like Salim Al Muhdor and Salim Yahya Qibas are
available online for download.
Farid is a Salafi, a follower of
the ultra-orthodox interpretation of Islam that holds that only the
version of the religion as espoused by the Prophet Muhammad and his
companions and the two generations after them is valid. For Farid, now
in his 60s, alternative or moderate interpretations of the Koran or the
Prophet's teachings constitute a form of deviancy.
common among many Muslims in Indonesia of making pilgrimages to the
tombs of Islamic missionaries and clerics is for Farid a "sinful
modification of Islam." Likewise, he deems the high regard in which
Ahmadiyah founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is held by his followers
"heretical." But he pays special attention to Shiites, having spent much
time collecting books about the branch to find "evidence" of their
In an interview with the Jakarta Globe, Farid brought
out four books that he said proved the Shia interpretation of Islam made
the Shiite community "more dangerous than Ahmadiyah."
"Their ideals are so deviant that their teachings need to be exterminated," he said.
main difference between the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam is that
Shiites regard Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, as the divinely
appointed successor to the Prophet. Shiites also only accept the hadith,
or teachings, credited to Muhammad's close family and associates, while
Sunnis only accept those credited to his companions.
Ahmadis, Shiites are a minority in Indonesia. But unlike the Ahmadis,
they have been defended by top religious figures in the country,
including Habib Rizieq, chairman of the hard-line Islamic Defenders
Front (FPI). However, at the grassroots level, Shiites say they are
starting to feel the heat.
"Although I don't agree with
Ahmadiyah, the persecution of Ahmadiyah members has left us worried,"
Fahrurozi Shadiq, a Shiite, told the Globe.
"Some of my friends have discussed the possibility that we may be the next target [of hard-liner attacks]."
said he used to pray according to the Shia tradition at the mosque at
his predominantly Sunni university campus in South Jakarta.
used to think, 'Why should I be afraid?' Yes, there are people who are
curious about the way I pray. But that was usually it," he said. "Now
they're growing intolerant. Last month, I was told not to pray there
anymore. 'Take your sect elsewhere,' they said. Can you imagine?
Intolerance at a campus filled with scholars and educated people?"
Kazhim Al Habsy, another Shiite, said many followers were uncomfortable
about displaying their faith in public, even in multicultural Jakarta.
people have lost their jobs because of their faith. Entrepreneurs have
lost business deals after their clients discovered they were Shiites,"
he told the Globe.
But while Shiites in big cities like Jakarta
endure discrimination and verbal abuse, those living in small towns and
villages face physical assault and vandalism of their property, he said.
"My late father was a Shia cleric in Bangil [in East Java].
When I was little, people would throw garbage in our front yard or write
'infidel' on our doors and walls," Musa said.
"But in the past
five years it's become more violent. Some of our pupils have been
harassed and our boarding school vandalized."
Sunni and Shia in Indonesia
Azra, a professor of Islamic history at Syarif Hidayatullah State
Islamic University (UIN) in Jakarta, said the Shia community in
Indonesia dated back to the arrival of Islam here, but grew rapidly
after the Iranian revolution in 1979.
"Around the same period,
Saudi Arabia tried to spread Wahhabism," he said, referring to the
hard-line form of Salafism adopted by the ruling Saud family of that
country. "At the time, Saudi Arabia was a rising oil giant and trying to
spread Wahhabism, including to Indonesia."
Tensions between the
Wahhabis and Salafis on one side and Shiites on the other escalated
during the Iran-Iraq war, but later died down, Musa said.
guess tensions arose again after the fall of Saddam Hussein and the rise
of the Shiites in Iraq," he said. "With the Middle East in turmoil once
again, the scale of the problem will only grow larger."
Islamic Cultural Center in Jakarta, deemed the center of Shia
propagation in Indonesia, says it is hard to estimate the number of
Shiites in the country because many choose to practice their faith in
There are around 150 Shia foundations, mostly under the name Ahlulbayt, or Lovers of the Prophet's Household.
The Pasuruan Incident
between Sunnis and Shiites erupted most recently on Feb. 16, when
dozens of demonstrators hurled rocks at the Alma'hadul Islam boarding
school in Kenep village in Pasuruan, East Java.
Four Shiite students were severely injured in the attack.
source told the Globe the attackers were Sunni Muslims, but police and
government officials called it a "student brawl" unrelated to any
Dedy Prihambudi, former head of the Surabaya
Legal Aid Foundation (LBH), said that the attack took place after a
prayer meeting in Pasuruan.
"It's not clear what was said at the
meeting, but shortly afterward they headed to the school in a convoy
and attacked it," he said.
He added that confrontations between
Sunnis and Shiites last occurred in 2006 and 2007 in Pasuruan, but none
reached this level of violence.
Jalaluddin Rakhmat, a leading
Shia figure, said the situation in Pasuruan had been resolved through
dialogue. However, local media reported that anti-Shia organizations
have objected to several points in an agreement drawn up by the local
administration, such as not calling Shia a deviant sect or seeking its
"It looks like centuries of feuding between Shiites
and Sunnis in the Middle East has found a new battleground in
Indonesia," Musa said.
Preview of What's Ahead?
by the weak response from the authorities to the recent attacks against
Ahmadiyah communities, firebrand clerics like Farid are ratcheting up
their rhetoric against Shiites.
"I never suggested violence, but
if the people are growing restless because of the Shia movement and if
they take the law into their own hands, then who's to blame?" he asked.
"Of course it's the Shia's fault."
Musa said that in his
hometown of Bangil, Salafi-affiliated groups have grown more vocal about
shutting down Shia boarding schools in the area.
"They hold rallies where they say it's halal to spill the blood of the Shiites," he said.
Ahmadiyah community knows the significance of such calls all too well.
In the period leading up to the bloody attack on an Ahmadiyah community
in Cikeusik subdistrict in Banten, clerics made similar justifications
about killing members of the sect. The attack in February saw three
Ahmadiyah members killed, but the local administration blamed the sect
"Differences between Muslim sects have always
been and will always be irreconcilable," said Azra, the UIN professor.
"We have to address the root causes of these acts of violence.
Unfortunately, the government has no vision [for addressing the issue].
Instead, it turns a blind eye to the problem.
"The government is
supposed to protect all citizens regardless of their faith, but now we
see them blaming the victims. People will now think that violence
committed by large crowds will never be prosecuted."
Reprinted with permission from the Jakarta Globe, with which Asia Sentinel has a content-sharing agreement