The Emirates’ glittering
riches are being built by poverty-stricken laborers from the subcontinent with
|Almas Tower in Jumeirah Lakes Towers in Dubai, February 2007|
Although Dubai and its
neighboring Gulf emirates have posted economic growth in recent years that
would embarrass China, much of it is built on an invisible worker army – predominantly
South Asian — whose endless toil is crucial
to Dubai's massive boom and who are housed in a slum of astonishing
proportions, hidden in the dunes between Dubai and Sarjah.
Without Sonapur, as it is
spas and tax-free splendor likely wouldn't exist. It is a Middle Eastern Soweto
of as many as 500,000 foreign laborers, mostly from the impoverished rural
villages of the Asian subcontinent.
Sonapur is one of the
biggest communities in the United
Arab Emirates but it doesn't seem to
officially exist. It isn't found on official maps, road signs or even
Wikipedia. Its wretched sprawl of filthy dormitories is concealed in the dunes,
an anonymous slum hidden from the Dubaians whose apartments its residents
built. The best way to find Sonapur is to follow one of the myriad worker buses
that shuttle between the many building sites. Some 90 minutes away is a heaving
sandswept plain of utilitarian four-story dormitories as far as the eye can
see, punctuated by the occasional store selling ghee, naan and curry powders.
Dubai gleams with world-class
infrastructure but Sonapur’s roads are gravel and sand with few footpaths. Open
sewers are common. There's none of the grass that Dubai's luxury developments specialize in
claiming from the desert. The United
Arab Emirates is strictly Islamic and
Sonapur's few places of worship for Hindus and Buddhists tend to be makeshift.
Dubai's economy expanded by 35 percent
in 2006, and about 20 percent last year. It's not oil ‑ that ran out decades
rags-to-riches miracle relies on an age-old business plan: slave labor in the
form of millions of poor Sri Lankans, Indians, Pakistanis, Filipinos and
Africans working up to 80 hour-plus weeks. They have built this gleaming oasis.
With their passports seized as insurance, these bonded workers toil in near
year-round 45-50 degree heat for about $US8 a day.
It's almost as if Dubai's employers have
scanned the latest global wealth survey and zeroed in on the poorest 20 nations
to staff their projects. Promised riches but paid salaries well below the OECD
poverty line, they have been deployed here by unscrupulous middlemen charitably
described as "employment agencies" who wouldn't have been out of place
in 1780s Atlanta.
Boosters argue the emirate
is correcting the world's economic imbalance. The US
was also built on immigrant labor, they note, ignoring the fact that those
immigrants to the US
could at least become citizens, which is impossible in the UAE.
No country relies more on
foreign labor than the emirates, nor are the citizens of any nation more
outnumbered by outsiders. Of the nearly 5 million people who officially live in
the United Arab Emirates, 80-85 per cent come from somewhere else. The few
Emiratis one meets casually in Dubai
tend to be airport officials processing passports on the way in, or people boozing
in the alcohol-relaxed emirate's many bars. State-owned Emirates Airlines is a
formidable competitor among the world’s smaller airlines with Emirates' new
planes soon to pull up at the world's biggest airport which is being built on
Sonapur’s cheap labor. There is no fear of strikes for higher wages or other
unrest. Should that happen, the workers would just be shipped home and replaced
by another batch.
There is much that is
otherworldly about Dubai,
which seems to have taken a mortgage on the term "world's biggest.” Dubai is building the
world's biggest hotel, airport, shopping mall, artificial island and marina.
There's that bizarre development called "the World,” where the rich and
gauche pay US$20 million and more for man-made islands arranged in a strange archipelago
mapped like the globe. The indoor ski resort with its own micro-climate particularly
The Burj Dubai is another
anything-is-possible phenomenon. Owned, like many things here, by the reclusive
royal family, at 600 meters it is the world's tallest building and seems
destined to be mankind's first kilometer-high tower. What isn't much mentioned
is that the project is riven with industrial strife, where workers ‑ many
billeted at Sonapur ‑ have revolted after being denied breaks and even the
relief of water from the searing sun, lest they be sacked and sent home, at
their own expense. Some workers have died, but you don't much read about that
in what passes for the local press.
I visited Akbar at his
filthy dormitory in Sonapur. He is a 26-year-old Afghan and has been working on
a Dubai construction site since 2003, after he gave
$2500 rustled from relatives to a labor broker in Kabul. That got him to Dubai, where he was promised he would make
that back in a month, and be able to send money home to his impoverished
Akbar says he clears about
$10 a day for a six-day week, sharing a putrid room with 10 men who sleep in
shifts, alternating rest on five bunk beds and the floor.
Sleep can be difficult.
The dorm lights are on 24/7, and shift changes and prayer means there is a constant
hubbub of activity; someone cooking or dressing, mobile phones chirruping. The
bus station outside his window processes workers for the hour trip each-way to
In a scalding recent paper
called Building Towers, Cheating Workers, Human Rights Watch
demanded the emirates "end abusive labor practices", describing
working conditions in Dubai as "less than human.” Just 140 labor inspectors monitor 4 million
"In most other
places, a worker faced with hazardous working conditions and unpaid wages, in a
free market economy that has an extreme shortage of labor, would move to a
different job," Human Rights Watch said. "But this is not an option
for the migrant construction workers of the UAE, who like all other migrant
workers in the country are contracted to work only for a specific employer.
"A worker seeking to
move to a different employer is eligible to do so only after working for two
years for the present (employer)."
Dubai is also been a big winner from the
September 11 attacks. As oil hovers at about $US100 a barrel, Arab petrodollars
are speculatively parked here, because their owners sometimes feel
discriminated against when they travel to the West. The US remembers that 15 of the 19 hijackers on
September 11 were Saudi, and the plot was financed with money washed through Dubai.
The emirates' sovereign
wealth funds have also emerged as some of the world's most aggressive buyers of
prime Western assets in recent years; ports, marquee property and
As the working poor of Sonapur
lament, democracy and workers' rights are not high on the national priority
list. Not that the untaxed Emiratis seem to much notice, as they count their
money and invest in soaring towers of speculation that seem to defy economic
gravity as well as nature.
Eric Ellis is
South-East Asia Correspondent of Fortune magazine. Another
version of this appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald and The Age of Melbourne.